How to deal with poisoning in the laboratory
In the event of accidental injury during the experiment, appropriate first aid measures should be taken immediately:
1. Glass cut and other mechanical damage: First, check whether there are glass or metal fragments in the wound, then wash it with boric acid water, and then rub iodine or purple syrup, and if necessary, wrap it with gauze. If the wound is large or deep and causes a lot of bleeding, blood vessels should be fastened on the upper and lower parts of the wound to stop bleeding, and go to the hospital for treatment immediately.
2. Burns: Generally, after disinfection with concentrated (90%-95%) alcohol, apply picric acid ointment. If the wound is red, painful or swollen (first-level burns), use olive oil or cotton moistened with alcohol to cover the wound; if the skin is blistering (second-level burns), do not break the blisters to prevent infection; the skin on the chrome wound is brown Or black (third-degree burns), should be gently wrapped with dry and sterile sterile gauze, and sent to the hospital for treatment.
3. When strong alkali (such as sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide), sodium, potassium, etc. touch the skin and cause burns, rinse with a large amount of tap water first, and then wash with 5% acetic acid solution or 2% acetic acid solution.
4. When strong acid, bromine, etc. touch the skin and cause burns, immediately rinse with a large amount of tap water, and then wash with 5% sodium bicarbonate solution or 5% ammonium hydroxide solution.
5. If phenol touches the skin and causes burns, it should be washed with plenty of water, and washed with soap and water, and ethanol should not be used.
6. If the carrier gas is poisoned, you should go outside to breathe fresh air. If it is severe, you should go to the hospital for treatment immediately.
7. Mercury easily enters the human body from the respiratory tract, and can also be directly absorbed through the skin to cause cumulative poisoning. Signs of severe poisoning are metal odor in the mouth and smell of exhaled air; saliva, black with mercury sulfide on the gums and lips; swelling of the lymph glands and salivary glands. In case of accidental poisoning, you should be sent to the hospital for emergency treatment. In acute poisoning, gastric lavage is usually done with toner or vomiting agent, or by ingesting protein (such as 1 liter of milk plus 3 egg whites) or castor oil to detoxify and vomit.
How do we deal with poisoning in the laboratory:
1. Strong acid (lethal dose 1 ml)
1). When swallowing, immediately drink 200 ml of magnesium oxide suspension, or aluminum hydroxide gel, milk, water and other things to quickly dilute the poison. Then, at least eat more than 10 beaten eggs as a soothing agent. Because sodium carbonate or sodium bicarbonate will produce carbon dioxide gas, do not use it.
2). Rinse with plenty of water for 15 minutes when it touches the skin. If neutralization is carried out immediately, neutralization heat will be generated, and there is a danger of further damage. Therefore, after washing with sufficient water, wash with dilute lye or soap liquid such as sodium bicarbonate. However, when it is stained with oxalic acid, if it is neutralized with sodium bicarbonate, it is not suitable to use because of the strong irritant produced by the alkali. In addition, it can also be neutralized with magnesium salt and calcium salt.
3) When it enters the eyes, open the eyelids and wash with water for 15 minutes.
2. Strong alkali (lethal dose 1 gram)
1) When swallowing, immediately observe with an esophagoscopy, and directly wash the affected area with 1% acetic acid aqueous solution until it is neutral. Then, quickly drink 500 ml of dilute edible vinegar (1 part of edible vinegar and 4 parts of water) or fresh orange juice to dilute it.
2). Take off your clothes immediately when it touches the skin, and rinse with water as soon as possible until the skin is not slippery. Then neutralize it with acetic acid or lemon juice diluted with water. However, if it is stained with quicklime, use oil or the like to remove the quicklime first.
3) When it enters the eyes, open the eyelids and wash them with water for 15 minutes.
Immediately move the patient to a place with fresh air, and then give him oxygen. When entering the eyes, lie down the patient and wash the cornea with water for at least 5 minutes. After that, wash with dilute acetic acid or dilute boric acid solution.
Four, halogen gas
Move the patient to a place with fresh air and keep quiet. When inhaling chlorine, smell the mixed vapor of 11 ether and ethanol; if inhaling bromine, smell dilute ammonia.
Five, cyanide (lethal dose 0.05 grams)
Anyway, deal with it immediately. Every two minutes, inhale isoamyl nitrite to the patient for 15 to 30 seconds. In this way, the cyano group combines with methemoglobin to generate non-toxic cyanomethemoglobin. Then give him a thiosulfate solution. Combine it with the cyanide dissociated from cyanomethemoglobin to generate thiocyanate.
1). When inhaling, move the patient to a place with fresh air and make him lie down. Then, take off the clothes stained with cyanide, and immediately perform artificial respiration.
2). Rub the patient’s throat with your fingers when swallowing to make him vomit immediately. Never wait for the gastric lavage appliance to arrive before processing. Because the patient is in danger of death within a few minutes.
Six, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, hydrogen sulfide gas
Move the patient to a place with fresh air and keep quiet. When it enters the eyes, wash with plenty of water and rinse the throat.