COVID-19’s basic knowledge of prevention and control
- what is New Coronavirus?
The International Committee on Taxonomy of viruses is a newly discovered coronavirus, named SARS-Cov-2. Because the population lacks immunity to the new virus strain, the population is generally susceptible.
- what causes the novel coronavirus pneumonia?
The novel coronavirus pneumonia is caused by SARS-Cov-2, and WHO calls SARS-Cov-2 disease caused by COVID-19, most of which can lead to pneumonia. It is called New Coronavirus pneumonia / new crown pneumonia.
- what are the characteristics of New Coronavirus’s etiology?
Coronavirus is a non segmented single strand positive strand RNA virus. It is named because there are protrusions extending around the virus envelope, shaped like a corolla.
The virus is sensitive to ultraviolet and heat. Lipid solvents such as 56 ℃ for 30 minutes, ether, 75% ethanol, chlorine containing disinfectant, peracetic acid and chloroform can effectively inactivate the virus, but chlorhexidine can not effectively inactivate the virus.
- what is the source of infection of New Coronavirus?
At present, the main source of infection is New Coronavirus infected patients. Asymptomatic infections can also be a source of infection.
- what is the way of New Coronavirus’s transmission?
Respiratory droplets and close contact are the main routes of transmission. When exposed to high concentration aerosol for a long time in a relatively closed environment, it is possible to propagate through aerosol. Due to the separation of New Coronavirus in feces and urine, attention should be paid to the spread of aerosols or contacts caused by environmental pollution by feces and urine.
- what is New Coronavirus’s susceptible population?
People are generally susceptible.
- What is droplet transmission?
Droplet: it is generally believed that aqueous particles with a diameter of > 5um can enter the susceptible mucosal surface through a certain distance (generally 1m).
Generation of droplets:
(1) Coughing, sneezing or talking;
(2) Implement invasive operations of respiratory tract, such as sputum suction or endotracheal intubation, turning over, back slapping, etc. to stimulate cough and cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
- What is contact communication?
Direct contact: pathogens are transmitted through direct contact with mucous membrane or skin.
(1) Blood or bloody body fluids enter the human body through mucous membrane or damaged skin;
(2) Direct contact with secretions containing certain pathogens causes transmission.
- What is aerosol transmission?
Aerosol transmission refers to the core composed of proteins and pathogens left by droplets losing water in the process of air suspension, forming droplet core, which can float to a distance in the form of aerosol, resulting in long-distance transmission.
- What are close contacts?
One of the following contacts after the onset of the case (observed and confirmed case):
(1) Cases live together, study, work or other close contacts;
(2) Medical staff, family members or other personnel who have similar close contact with the case without taking effective protective measures during diagnosis, treatment, nursing and visiting the case;
(3) Other patients and caregivers in the same ward;
(4) Persons who take the same vehicle and have close contact with the case;
(5) The on-site investigators are those who are assessed as qualified after investigation.
- what is the novel coronavirus pneumonia clinical manifestation?
Based on the current epidemiological investigation, the incubation period is 1 to 14 days, mostly 3 to 7 days. The main manifestations were fever, dry cough and fatigue. A few patients have symptoms such as nasal congestion, runny nose, sore throat, myalgia and diarrhea. Some children and newborns may have atypical symptoms, such as vomiting, diarrhea and other gastrointestinal symptoms, or only mental weakness and shortness of breath. Mild patients only showed low fever and slight fatigue, without pneumonia. From the current cases, the prognosis of most patients is good, and a few patients are in critical condition. The elderly and have chronic
The prognosis of patients with basic diseases is poor. The symptoms of children are relatively mild.
- what are the novel coronavirus pneumonia control measures?
(1) Avoid going to crowded public places, avoid contacting patients with fever and respiratory tract infection, and wear masks if necessary.
(2) Wash hands frequently, especially when touching respiratory secretions and pollutants, and after contacting public facilities.
(3) Don’t spit everywhere. Pay attention to the etiquette of coughing when coughing. Don’t cough to the surrounding people. Be sure to cover it with a paper towel. When spitting, wrap it on paper and then throw it into the trash can.
(4) Strengthen physical exercise, strengthen physique, rest regularly, and maintain indoor air circulation
(5) cleaning and disinfection: New Coronavirus is sensitive to heat, soaking for 56 minutes at 56 degree hot water, 75% alcohol, chlorine disinfectant, chloroform and other lipid solvents can effectively inactivate the virus.